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During that time, the agents actively participated in a number of commercial ventures, only one facet of which was the sale of merchandise (Levi, pp. The merchants of the Indian diaspora were trained to reinvest the retrieved cash in other commercial activities, most commonly in interest-earning lending ventures.Jean Baptiste Tavernier suggested that the Indian merchant-moneylenders were capitalized at 8-10 percent annual interest, and they used that principal to extend loans at considerably higher interest rates (Tavernier, pp. Indian moneylenders were active in both urban and rural markets.Over the course of the 17th century, these communities grew larger and more numerous.One 17th-century Bukharan Khan issued a decree (, foll. Several primary centers of diaspora activity emerged in those Eurasian locations most conducive to mediating trans-regional commerce, including Isfahan, Bandar-e ʿAbbās, Astrakhan, Kandahar, Kabul, and Bukhara, each of which hosted communities of several hundred to several thousand Indian merchants.Considering that every caravan that brought Indian merchants to distant markets also brought hundreds, even thousands, of camel-loads of cotton textiles, these merchants were inclined to sell only a small percentage of the total, hoarding the rest for sale over an extended period of time in order to avoid saturating the market and consequently driving down the price of their commodities.

The earliest available report of an Indian merchant diaspora community in Central Asia is found in the account of Anthony Jenkinson, an agent of the Muscovy Company.

The vast majority of the Multani merchants belonged to a variety of Hindu commercial castes, although the diaspora also included a significant number of Muslim Multanis and smaller populations of Marwari Jain and, later, Sikh merchants.

From the late 18th century, observers began to refer to the majority of the Indian diaspora merchants in Central Asia and Persia by the designation Šekarpuri rather than Multani. A small minority of Multani firms had members who had abandoned their ancestral religion for the Sikh Khalsa and had relocated to the Punjabi city of Amritsar, where they established the commercial center of the Sikh diaspora.

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By the mid-17th century, the Indian community of Isfahan had grown to become the largest of the diaspora with an estimated 10-15,000 Indian merchants in that city alone.

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